Do unto others as you would have them do unto you
These data will give you a flavor of the violence that occurs daily in the United States.
U.S. Department of Justice
Bureau of Justice Statistics
Page last revised on December 20, 2001
Trends | Victim/offender relationship | Time |
Place | Weapon use | Role of alcohol
Trends | Home ownership| Region | Urban, suburban, rural
and sexual assault, Robbery, Assault
Males were more likely to be victimized by a stranger, and females were more likely
to be violently victimized by a friend, an acquaintance, or an intimate.
During 2000 --
in ten rape or sexual assault victims stated the offender was an intimate, other relative, a friend or an acquaintance.
Seventy-four percent of males and 60% of females stated the individual(s) who robbed them was a stranger.
Violence against men and women by friends/acquaintances and strangers and intimate partner violence against females
fell significantly between 1993 and 1998.
Family members were most likely to murder a young child -- About one
in five child murders was committed by a family member -- while a friend or acquaintance was most likely to murder an older
child age 15 to 17.
Intimates were identified by the victims of workplace violence as the perpetrator in about
1% of all workplace violent crime. About 40% of the victims of nonfatal violence in the workplace reported that they knew
For murder victims, 45% were related to or acquainted with their assailants; 15% of victims were
murdered by strangers, while almost 40% of victims had an unknown relationship to their murderer.
In 1998, women experienced an estimated 876,340 rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault and simple assault
victimizations at the hands of an intimate, down from 1.1 million in 1993. In both 1993 and 1998, men were victims of about
160,000 violent crimes by an intimate partner.
On average, from 1976-1998, the number of murders by intimates decreased
by 4 percent per year for male victims and 1 percent per year for female victims.
The sharpest decrease in number
of intimate murder has been for black male victims. A 74% percent decrease in the number of black men murdered between 1976
and 1998 occurred.
Intimate violence is primarily a crime against women -- in 1998, females were the victims in
72% of intimate murders and the victims of about 85% of nonlethal intimate violence.
Women age 16-24 experienced
the highest per capita rates of intimate violence (19.6 victimizations per 1,000 women).
Intimates (current and
former spouses, boyfriends and girlfriends) were identified by the victims as the perpetrators of about 1% of all workplace
In surveys of 12 cities in 1998, the percentage of violent crime in which the offender was a stranger
to the victim ranged from 42% in Tucson to 74% in Los Angeles.
Time of occurrence
While overall violent crimes were more likely to occur during the day than at the night, some
crimes exhibited different patterns.
Fifty-four percent of incidents of violent crime occurred between 6 a.m. and
6 p.m. Approximately two-thirds of rapes/sexual assaults occurred at night -- 6 p.m. to 6 a.m.
Place of occurrence
Workplace | School | Region | Urban, suburban, rural
In 1995 about a quarter of incidents
of violent crime occurred at or near the victim's home. Among common locales for violent crimes were on streets other than
those near the victim's home (19%), at school (14%), or at a commercial establishment (12%).
One in four violent
crimes occurred in or near the victim's home. Including these, almost half occurred within a mile from home and 73% within
five miles. Only 4% of victims of violent crime reported that the crime took place more than fifty miles from their home.
Twenty-three percent of victims of violent crime reported being involved in some form of leisure activity away from
home at the time of their victimization. Twenty-one percent said they were at home, and another 21% mentioned they were at
work or traveling to or from work when the crime occurred.
Of selected occupations
examined from 1993 to 1999, police officers were the most vulnerable to be victims of workplace violence, as well as correctional
officers, taxicab drivers, private security workers, and bartenders.
While working or on duty, U.S. residents experienced
1.7 million violent victimizations annually from 1993 to 1999 including 1.3 million simple assaults, 325,000 aggravated assaults,
36,500 rapes and sexual assaults, 70,000 robberies, and 900 homicides. Workplace violence accounted for 18% of all violent
crime between 1993 to 1999.
Police officers were victims of a nonfatal violent crime while they were working or on
duty between 1993 to 1999 at a rate of 261 per 1,000 officers.
In 1999, Students age 12 through 18 were victims of about 186,000 serious violent crimes at school,
and about 476,000 away from school. Between 1992 and 1999 victimization rates at school and away from school declined.
In 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999, about 7 to 8 percent of students in grades 9 to 12 reported being threatened or injured
with a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club on school property in the past 12 months.
In 1999, about 7% of students
carried a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club on school property in the past 30 days.
homicides were of school age children between July 1, 1998 and June 30, 1999.
The percent of students reporting
street gang presence at school decreased from 29% to 17% between 1995 and 1999.
differ across regions. In 2000 Western and Midwestern residents experienced the highest rates of violent victimization, and
Western households had the highest rate of property crime in the nation.
In 2000 --
30 Midwesterners, 25 Southerners and 24 Northeasterners per 1,000 were violent crime victims.
Urban, suburban and rural
Urban residents had the highest violent victimization rates, followed by suburban resident
rates. Rural resident had the lowest rates.
Seven urban residents, five suburban residents and
five rural residents per 1,000 were victims of an aggravated assault, and urban residents were robbed at about 5 times the
rate of rural residents.
Suburban and rural residents were victims of simple assault at similar rates.
Surveys of 12 cities in 1998 found that black residents in urban areas experienced a higher rate of violent crime than
urban whites in a majority of the cities.
See also Homicide Trends in the United States and Data Online for characteristics
of homicide victims by State and large locality.
In 26% of the incidents of violent crime,
a weapon was present.
Offenders had or used a weapon in 55% of all robberies, compared with 6% of all rapes/sexual
assaults in 2000.
Homicides are most often committed with guns, especially handguns. In 1999, 51% of homicides
were committed with handguns, 14% with other guns, 13% with knives, 6% with blunt objects, and 16% with other weapons.
In each of 12 cities surveyed in 1998, victims said that less than half of the violent crimes involved a weapon.
The role of alcohol in crime victimization
About 3 million violent crimes occur each year in which victims perceive
the offender to have been drinking at the time of the offense. Among those victims who provided information about the offender's
use of alcohol, about 35% of the victimizations involved an offender who had been drinking.
Two-thirds of victims
who suffered violence by an intimate (a current or former spouse, boyfriend, or girlfriend) reported that alcohol had been
a factor. Among spouse victims, 3 out of 4 incidents were reported to have involved an offender who had been drinking. By
contrast, an estimated 31% of stranger victimizations where the victim could determine the absence or presence of alcohol
were perceived to be alcohol-related.
For about 1 in 5 violent victimizations involving perceived alcohol use by
the offender, victims also reported they believed the offender to have been using drugs as well.
Property crimes include burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft.
Property crime continued
a 26-year decline.
Trends in property crime victimizations, 1973-2000
See trends in burglary, theft,
and motor vehicle theft.
Property crime makes up about three-quarters of all crime in the United States.
Overall, about 72% of all burglaries were successful.
About 69% of all motor vehicle thefts were successful.
Of the 14.9 million completed thefts of property in 2000, there were 4.7 million property thefts of less than
$50, 5.3 million between $50 and $249, and 3.2 million of $250 or more.
regardless of the type, occurred to those living in rented property.
Households in rented property
experienced 228, while those that are owned experienced 153 overall property crimes per 1,000 households.
households were burglarized at rates 85% higher than owned households.
Households living in rented property had
about twice the rate of motor vehicle theft than those in owned property.
The Western portion of the nation experiences the highest rates of property crime overall in the nation.
Western households had at least slightly higher rates of property crime and theft of all regions.
Urban, suburban and rural
Urban households have historically been and continue to be the most vulnerable to property
crime, burglary, motor vehicle theft and theft in the United States.
Suburban households were more
likely to experience motor vehicle theft than were rural households.
This list is in order of the most recent publication first. Additional titles are listed on other topical
pages and a comprehensive list is contained on the BJS publications page. To see a full abstract of a publication with links
to electronic versions of the publication, click on the title below.
Violence in the Workplace, 1993-99, 12/01. Presents
data for 1993 through 1999 from the National Crime Victimization Survey estimating the extent of workplace crime in the United
States. NCJ 190076
Other publications on this topic:
Workplace Violence, 1992-96, 7/98. NCJ 168634
and Theft in the Workplace, 7/94. NCJ 148199
Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2001, 10/01. Examines crime occurring
in school as well as on the way to and from school. A collaborative report from the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National
Center for Education Statistics, it presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals,
and the general population, using a comprehensive array of sources. NCJ 190075
Indicators of School Crime and Safety,
2000, 10/00. 184176
Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1999, 9/99. NCJ 178906
Indicators of School Crime and
Safety, 1998, 10/98. NCJ 172215
Intimate Partner Violence and Age of Victim, 10/01. Provides estimates of violence by
intimates (current or former spouses, girlfriends, and boyfriends) with an emphasis on the victim's age using the National
Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 1993-99. NCJ 187635
Hate Crimes Reported in NIBRS, 1997-99, 9/01. Utilizes data
from the FBIs National Incident-Based Reporting Program (NIBRS) to describe hate crimes reported to law enforcement in NIBRS-participating
jurisdictions, between 1997 and 1999. NCJ 186765
Injuries from Violent Crime, 1992-98, 6/01. Presents data from the
redesigned National Crime Victimization Survey, examining injuries as a result of violent victimizations. NCJ 168633
Criminal Victimization 2000: Changes 1999-2000 with Trends 1993-2000, 6/01. This report summarizes criminal victimization
levels and rates in 2000. It also includes other findings about the characteristics of victims and examines trends in victimization
rates from 1993 to 2000. NCJ 187007
Criminal Victimization 1999: Changes 1998-99 with Trends 1993-99, 8/00. NCJ
Criminal Victimization 1998: Changes 1997-98 with Trends 1993-98, 7/99. NCJ 176353
1997: Changes 1996-97 with Trends 1993-97, 12/98. NCJ 173385
Criminal Victimization 1996: Changes 1995-96 with Trends
1993-96, 11/97. NCJ 165812
Policing and Homicide, 1976-98: Justifiable Homicide of Felons by Police and Murder of Police
by Felons, 03/01. Presents annual trends from 1976 to 1998 in two types of homicide: justifiable homicides of felons by police,
and murders of police officers by felons. NCJ 180987
Violent Victimization and Race, 1993-98, 3/01. Presents incidence
estimates and per capita rates of violent victimization of whites, blacks, American Indians and Asians in 1998, and includes
victimization trends, 1993-98. NCJ 176354
Sexual Victimization of College Women, 1/01. A joint report from BJS and
the National Institute of Justice which explores the prevalence and nature of sexual assault occurring at colleges throughout
the nation. NCJ 182369
Criminal Victimization in the United States 1995, 5/00. Presents detailed data on major variables
measured by the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) for 1995. NCJ 171129
After 1995, these data are
available only in electronic formats. See Criminal Victimization in the United States - Statistical Tables 1/01.
Victimization in the United States 1994, 5/97. NCJ 162126
Criminal Victimization in the United States 1993,
5/96. NCJ 151657
Criminal Victimization in the United States 1992, 5/95. NCJ 145125
Urban, Suburban, and Rural Victimization,
1993-98, 10/00 Examines the extent of criminal victimization in urban, suburban, and rural areas using 1993 to 1998 National
Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) data. NCJ 182031
Firearm Injury and Death from Crime, 1993-97 10/00 Reports on
the incidence of fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries that result from crime. Most of the data presented are from the FBIs
Supplementary Homicide Reports and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vital Statistics and the Firearms Injury Surveillance
Study which collects data on injuries treated in hospital emergency departments. NCJ 182993
Sexual Assault of Young
Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics 7/00. Presents findings from the National
Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) regarding sexual assault, especially of young children. NCJ 182990
Partner Violence, 5/00. Provides information on fatal and nonfatal violence by intimates (current or former spouses, girlfriends,
or boyfriends) from 1993 through 1998. NCJ 178247
Homicide Trends in the United States: 1998 Update, 3/00. Outlines
the primary findings from the section of the BJS website about homicide patterns and trends since 1976 (www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/homicide/homtrnd.htm).
Homicide Trends in the United States, 1/99. NCJ 173956
Criminal Victimization and Perceptions of
Community Safety in 12 Cities, 1998, 6/99. Presents survey data from 12 cities regarding criminal victimization and residents'
attitudes toward their neighborhood, their city, and the local policing services. NCJ 173940
Carjackings in the
United States, 1992-96, 3/99. Presents data from the National Crime Victimization Survey about carjackings (completed or attempted
robbery of a motor vehicle by a stranger to the victim) that occurred during 1992-96. NCJ 171145
3/94. NCJ 147002
Perceptions of Neighborhood Crime, 1995, 5/98. Presents data from the American Housing Survey (U.S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development) and the BJS National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) about how residents perceive
crime in their neighborhoods and their relative likelihood of victimization. NCJ 165811
Students' Report of School
Crime: 1989 and 1995, 4/98. Compares findings from the 1989 and 1995 School Crime Supplements to the BJS National Crime Victimization
Survey, discussing student reports of victimization, drug availability, street gang presence, and gun presence at school.
Alcohol and Crime, 4/98. Provides an overview of national information on the role of alcohol in violent
victimization and its use among those convicted of crimes, including victim perceptions of alcohol use by offenders at the
time of the crime. NCJ 168632
Violence by Intimates, 3/98. Reports findings about violence between people who have
an intimate relationship -- spouses, exspouses, boyfriends, girlfriends, and former boyfriends and girlfriends from statistical
data maintained by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. NCJ 167237
in Violent Victimization, 1994, 9/97. Contains detailed information about specific violent crime types and contextual characteristics
of violence against both women and men and their relationship to those who victimize them. NCJ 164508
Injuries Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments, 8/97. Presents findings from a study of violence related-injuries treated
in hospital emergency departments in 1994. The study was conducted using the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National
Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) program. NCJ 156921
Sex Offenses and Offenders 2/97. Reports on more
than two dozen statistical datasets maintained by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and on data from the Uniform Crime Reporting
(UCR) Program of the FBI to provide a comprehensive overview of current knowledge about the incidence and prevalence of violent
victimization by sexual assault, the response of the criminal justice system to such crimes, and the characteristics of those
who commit sexual assault or rape. NCJ 163392
Domestic and Sexual Violence Data Collection: A Report to Congress
Under the Violence Against Women Act, 7/96. Reports how States and the Federal government collect data on the incidence of
sexual and domestic violence offenses. NCJ 161405
Violence between Intimates, 11/94. Using data from a variety of
sources, this report examines murders, rapes, robberies, and assaults committed by spouses, ex-spouses, boyfriends, or girlfriends.
Crime and Neighborhoods , 7/94. Compares victimization levels and perceptions of neighborhood crime for
the Nation's households using data from a variety of sources. NCJ 147005
Guns and Crime: Handgun Victimization,
Firearm Self-Defense, and Firearm Theft, 5/94. Provides estimates of the extent of handgun crime in the United States through
1992, as well as estimates from the National Crime Victimization Survey of thefts of firearms and the extent of firearm use
for self-defense. NCJ 147003
Violent Crime, 4/94. Summarizes 1973-92 trends in rape, robbery, and assault from the
National Crime Victimization Survey; homicide data from Vital Statistics of the United States, National Center for Health
Statistics; and 1992 murder data from the FBI Uniform Crime Reports. NCJ 147486
Carjacking, 3/94. Presents the first
National Crime Victimization Survey estimates of the extent and characteristics of the recently identified crime of carjacking.
The Costs of Crime to Victims, 2/94. Provides information on both the overall and the average cost of
crime to victims. NCJ 145865
School Crime 1991, 9/91. Analyzes the experiences of U.S. students in grades 6-12 regarding
crime victimization at school, the availability of illicit substances, gang presence, fear of crime, and school security measures.
Data Online for criminal offenses and homicide trends by State and locality.
Homicide Trends in the United States
Improving the Quality and Accuracy of Bias Crime Statistics Nationally:
An Assessment of the First Ten Years of Bias Crime Data Collection
Other relevant sites
Reports from the Office
of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention:
Child Abuse Reported to the Police
Juvenile Victims of Property Crimes
In The Crossfire: The Impact of Gun Violence on Public Housing Communities (Pdf file, 222 KB) from the U.S. Department
of Housing and Urban Development which includes data from the National Crime Victimization Survey.
Office for Victims
Violence Against Women Office
National Center for Education Statistics