Principles to Live By

Spiritual wisdom for the Class of 2020 (New 23 May 2020)
FBI: Hate crimes, anti-Semitic attacks up in 2017 (New 16 Nov 2018)
High CEO Pay Means Disappointing Stock Returns (New 1 Aug 2016)
Importance of Teaching Values (New 24 Mar 2016)
America's economy is a nightmare of our own making (New 25 Jun 2015)
The Stranger in Your Home (New 24 Mar 2015)
The Cost of WWII Air War (New 28 Mar 2014)
Wealth Inequality in America (New 6 Dec 2013)
The Psycholoty of Winning (New 3 Feb 2013)
Crisis of the Middle Class (New 8 Jan 2013)
Income Inequality Grows in TN (New 15 Nov 2012)
Why the Economy is Slow (New 12 Oct 2012)
Veteran's Charity Under Fire (New 15 Aug 2012)
Nursing Homes Vs. Prison (New 12 Nov 2010)
Soul of the Republic (New 30 Oct 2010)
National Purpose (New 16 Oct 2010)
Inside Job (New 14 Oct 2010)
'Big Business' Democrats (New 14 Oct 2010)
Corporate Governance (New 1 Oct 2010)
Common Good (New 1 Oct 2010)
American Wealth (New 19 Sep 2010)
Shrinking Middle Class (New 19 Sep 2010)
Financial Market Failure (New 15 Mar 2010)
Pledge of Allegiance (New 14 Mar 2010)
The Gift of Fear (New Jan 2010)
No Time to Lose (New Sept 2009)
Fiduciary Responsibity (New 7 Mar2009)
What Hamilton Has Wrought (New 27 Mar2009)
What Would Jesus Do? (New 21 Mar2009)
Global Warming (New March 2007)
What I Wish For
Scout's Oath
Osama Bin Laden
Close to Home
Inhumanity to Man
DC Area Snipers
Civil Society
Religious Extremism
Stem Cell Research
Contact Me
Peaceful Civil Disobedience

Fairness Trustworthiness Kindness
Patience Gentleness Knowledge
Discipline Compassion Integrity

Do unto others as you would have them do unto you


These data will give you a flavor of the violence that occurs daily in the United States.

U.S. Department of Justice
Bureau of Justice Statistics

Page last revised on December 20, 2001

Summary findings

Violent Crime
Trends | Victim/offender relationship | Time |
Place | Weapon use | Role of alcohol

Property Crime
Trends | Home ownership| Region | Urban, suburban, rural
Violent Crime
Murder, Rape and sexual assault, Robbery, Assault

Victim/offender relationship

Males were more likely to be victimized by a stranger, and females were more likely to be violently victimized by a friend, an acquaintance, or an intimate.
During 2000 --

About six in ten rape or sexual assault victims stated the offender was an intimate, other relative, a friend or an acquaintance.

Seventy-four percent of males and 60% of females stated the individual(s) who robbed them was a stranger.

Violence against men and women by friends/acquaintances and strangers and intimate partner violence against females fell significantly between 1993 and 1998.

Family members were most likely to murder a young child -- About one in five child murders was committed by a family member -- while a friend or acquaintance was most likely to murder an older child age 15 to 17.

Intimates were identified by the victims of workplace violence as the perpetrator in about 1% of all workplace violent crime. About 40% of the victims of nonfatal violence in the workplace reported that they knew their offender.

For murder victims, 45% were related to or acquainted with their assailants; 15% of victims were murdered by strangers, while almost 40% of victims had an unknown relationship to their murderer.

Intimate violence

In 1998, women experienced an estimated 876,340 rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault and simple assault victimizations at the hands of an intimate, down from 1.1 million in 1993. In both 1993 and 1998, men were victims of about 160,000 violent crimes by an intimate partner.

On average, from 1976-1998, the number of murders by intimates decreased by 4 percent per year for male victims and 1 percent per year for female victims.

The sharpest decrease in number of intimate murder has been for black male victims. A 74% percent decrease in the number of black men murdered between 1976 and 1998 occurred.

Intimate violence is primarily a crime against women -- in 1998, females were the victims in 72% of intimate murders and the victims of about 85% of nonlethal intimate violence.

Women age 16-24 experienced the highest per capita rates of intimate violence (19.6 victimizations per 1,000 women).

Intimates (current and former spouses, boyfriends and girlfriends) were identified by the victims as the perpetrators of about 1% of all workplace violent crime.

In surveys of 12 cities in 1998, the percentage of violent crime in which the offender was a stranger to the victim ranged from 42% in Tucson to 74% in Los Angeles.

Time of occurrence

While overall violent crimes were more likely to occur during the day than at the night, some crimes exhibited different patterns.

Fifty-four percent of incidents of violent crime occurred between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. Approximately two-thirds of rapes/sexual assaults occurred at night -- 6 p.m. to 6 a.m.

Place of occurrence
Workplace | School | Region | Urban, suburban, rural

In 1995 about a quarter of incidents of violent crime occurred at or near the victim's home. Among common locales for violent crimes were on streets other than those near the victim's home (19%), at school (14%), or at a commercial establishment (12%).

One in four violent crimes occurred in or near the victim's home. Including these, almost half occurred within a mile from home and 73% within five miles. Only 4% of victims of violent crime reported that the crime took place more than fifty miles from their home.

Twenty-three percent of victims of violent crime reported being involved in some form of leisure activity away from home at the time of their victimization. Twenty-one percent said they were at home, and another 21% mentioned they were at work or traveling to or from work when the crime occurred.

Workplace violence

Of selected occupations examined from 1993 to 1999, police officers were the most vulnerable to be victims of workplace violence, as well as correctional officers, taxicab drivers, private security workers, and bartenders.

While working or on duty, U.S. residents experienced 1.7 million violent victimizations annually from 1993 to 1999 including 1.3 million simple assaults, 325,000 aggravated assaults, 36,500 rapes and sexual assaults, 70,000 robberies, and 900 homicides. Workplace violence accounted for 18% of all violent crime between 1993 to 1999.

Police officers were victims of a nonfatal violent crime while they were working or on duty between 1993 to 1999 at a rate of 261 per 1,000 officers.

School violence

In 1999, Students age 12 through 18 were victims of about 186,000 serious violent crimes at school, and about 476,000 away from school. Between 1992 and 1999 victimization rates at school and away from school declined.

In 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999, about 7 to 8 percent of students in grades 9 to 12 reported being threatened or injured with a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club on school property in the past 12 months.

In 1999, about 7% of students carried a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club on school property in the past 30 days.

Thirty-three school-associated homicides were of school age children between July 1, 1998 and June 30, 1999.

The percent of students reporting street gang presence at school decreased from 29% to 17% between 1995 and 1999.


Crime rates differ across regions. In 2000 Western and Midwestern residents experienced the highest rates of violent victimization, and Western households had the highest rate of property crime in the nation.

In 2000 --

34 Westerners, 30 Midwesterners, 25 Southerners and 24 Northeasterners per 1,000 were violent crime victims.

Urban, suburban and rural

Urban residents had the highest violent victimization rates, followed by suburban resident rates. Rural resident had the lowest rates.

In 2000--
Seven urban residents, five suburban residents and five rural residents per 1,000 were victims of an aggravated assault, and urban residents were robbed at about 5 times the rate of rural residents.

Suburban and rural residents were victims of simple assault at similar rates.

Surveys of 12 cities in 1998 found that black residents in urban areas experienced a higher rate of violent crime than urban whites in a majority of the cities.

See also Homicide Trends in the United States and Data Online for characteristics of homicide victims by State and large locality.

Weapon use

In 26% of the incidents of violent crime, a weapon was present.

Offenders had or used a weapon in 55% of all robberies, compared with 6% of all rapes/sexual assaults in 2000.

Homicides are most often committed with guns, especially handguns. In 1999, 51% of homicides were committed with handguns, 14% with other guns, 13% with knives, 6% with blunt objects, and 16% with other weapons.

In each of 12 cities surveyed in 1998, victims said that less than half of the violent crimes involved a weapon.

The role of alcohol in crime victimization

About 3 million violent crimes occur each year in which victims perceive the offender to have been drinking at the time of the offense. Among those victims who provided information about the offender's use of alcohol, about 35% of the victimizations involved an offender who had been drinking.

Two-thirds of victims who suffered violence by an intimate (a current or former spouse, boyfriend, or girlfriend) reported that alcohol had been a factor. Among spouse victims, 3 out of 4 incidents were reported to have involved an offender who had been drinking. By contrast, an estimated 31% of stranger victimizations where the victim could determine the absence or presence of alcohol were perceived to be alcohol-related.

For about 1 in 5 violent victimizations involving perceived alcohol use by the offender, victims also reported they believed the offender to have been using drugs as well.

Property crime

Property crimes include burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft.

Property crime continued a 26-year decline.

Trends in property crime victimizations, 1973-2000

See trends in burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft.

Property crime makes up about three-quarters of all crime in the United States.

Overall, about 72% of all burglaries were successful.

About 69% of all motor vehicle thefts were successful.

Of the 14.9 million completed thefts of property in 2000, there were 4.7 million property thefts of less than $50, 5.3 million between $50 and $249, and 3.2 million of $250 or more.

Home ownership

Property crime, regardless of the type, occurred to those living in rented property.

In 2000--
Households in rented property experienced 228, while those that are owned experienced 153 overall property crimes per 1,000 households.

Rented households were burglarized at rates 85% higher than owned households.

Households living in rented property had about twice the rate of motor vehicle theft than those in owned property.

The Western portion of the nation experiences the highest rates of property crime overall in the nation.

In 2000--
Western households had at least slightly higher rates of property crime and theft of all regions.

Urban, suburban and rural
Urban households have historically been and continue to be the most vulnerable to property crime, burglary, motor vehicle theft and theft in the United States.

In 2000--
Suburban households were more likely to experience motor vehicle theft than were rural households.

BJS publications
This list is in order of the most recent publication first. Additional titles are listed on other topical pages and a comprehensive list is contained on the BJS publications page. To see a full abstract of a publication with links to electronic versions of the publication, click on the title below.

Violence in the Workplace, 1993-99, 12/01. Presents data for 1993 through 1999 from the National Crime Victimization Survey estimating the extent of workplace crime in the United States. NCJ 190076

Other publications on this topic:
Workplace Violence, 1992-96, 7/98. NCJ 168634
Violence and Theft in the Workplace, 7/94. NCJ 148199
Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2001, 10/01. Examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. A collaborative report from the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, it presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population, using a comprehensive array of sources. NCJ 190075

Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2000, 10/00. 184176
Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1999, 9/99. NCJ 178906
Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1998, 10/98. NCJ 172215
Intimate Partner Violence and Age of Victim, 10/01. Provides estimates of violence by intimates (current or former spouses, girlfriends, and boyfriends) with an emphasis on the victim's age using the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 1993-99. NCJ 187635

Hate Crimes Reported in NIBRS, 1997-99, 9/01. Utilizes data from the FBIs National Incident-Based Reporting Program (NIBRS) to describe hate crimes reported to law enforcement in NIBRS-participating jurisdictions, between 1997 and 1999. NCJ 186765

Injuries from Violent Crime, 1992-98, 6/01. Presents data from the redesigned National Crime Victimization Survey, examining injuries as a result of violent victimizations. NCJ 168633

Criminal Victimization 2000: Changes 1999-2000 with Trends 1993-2000, 6/01. This report summarizes criminal victimization levels and rates in 2000. It also includes other findings about the characteristics of victims and examines trends in victimization rates from 1993 to 2000. NCJ 187007

Criminal Victimization 1999: Changes 1998-99 with Trends 1993-99, 8/00. NCJ 182734
Criminal Victimization 1998: Changes 1997-98 with Trends 1993-98, 7/99. NCJ 176353
Criminal Victimization 1997: Changes 1996-97 with Trends 1993-97, 12/98. NCJ 173385

Criminal Victimization 1996: Changes 1995-96 with Trends 1993-96, 11/97. NCJ 165812
Policing and Homicide, 1976-98: Justifiable Homicide of Felons by Police and Murder of Police by Felons, 03/01. Presents annual trends from 1976 to 1998 in two types of homicide: justifiable homicides of felons by police, and murders of police officers by felons. NCJ 180987

Violent Victimization and Race, 1993-98, 3/01. Presents incidence estimates and per capita rates of violent victimization of whites, blacks, American Indians and Asians in 1998, and includes victimization trends, 1993-98. NCJ 176354

Sexual Victimization of College Women, 1/01. A joint report from BJS and the National Institute of Justice which explores the prevalence and nature of sexual assault occurring at colleges throughout the nation. NCJ 182369

Criminal Victimization in the United States 1995, 5/00. Presents detailed data on major variables measured by the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) for 1995. NCJ 171129

After 1995, these data are available only in electronic formats. See Criminal Victimization in the United States - Statistical Tables 1/01.
Criminal Victimization in the United States 1994, 5/97. NCJ 162126

Criminal Victimization in the United States 1993, 5/96. NCJ 151657
Criminal Victimization in the United States 1992, 5/95. NCJ 145125
Urban, Suburban, and Rural Victimization, 1993-98, 10/00 Examines the extent of criminal victimization in urban, suburban, and rural areas using 1993 to 1998 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) data. NCJ 182031

Firearm Injury and Death from Crime, 1993-97 10/00 Reports on the incidence of fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries that result from crime. Most of the data presented are from the FBIs Supplementary Homicide Reports and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vital Statistics and the Firearms Injury Surveillance Study which collects data on injuries treated in hospital emergency departments. NCJ 182993

Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics 7/00. Presents findings from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) regarding sexual assault, especially of young children. NCJ 182990

Intimate Partner Violence, 5/00. Provides information on fatal and nonfatal violence by intimates (current or former spouses, girlfriends, or boyfriends) from 1993 through 1998. NCJ 178247

Homicide Trends in the United States: 1998 Update, 3/00. Outlines the primary findings from the section of the BJS website about homicide patterns and trends since 1976 ( NCJ 179767

Homicide Trends in the United States, 1/99. NCJ 173956
Criminal Victimization and Perceptions of Community Safety in 12 Cities, 1998, 6/99. Presents survey data from 12 cities regarding criminal victimization and residents' attitudes toward their neighborhood, their city, and the local policing services. NCJ 173940

Carjackings in the United States, 1992-96, 3/99. Presents data from the National Crime Victimization Survey about carjackings (completed or attempted robbery of a motor vehicle by a stranger to the victim) that occurred during 1992-96. NCJ 171145

Carjacking, 3/94. NCJ 147002
Perceptions of Neighborhood Crime, 1995, 5/98. Presents data from the American Housing Survey (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development) and the BJS National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) about how residents perceive crime in their neighborhoods and their relative likelihood of victimization. NCJ 165811

Students' Report of School Crime: 1989 and 1995, 4/98. Compares findings from the 1989 and 1995 School Crime Supplements to the BJS National Crime Victimization Survey, discussing student reports of victimization, drug availability, street gang presence, and gun presence at school. NCJ 169607

Alcohol and Crime, 4/98. Provides an overview of national information on the role of alcohol in violent victimization and its use among those convicted of crimes, including victim perceptions of alcohol use by offenders at the time of the crime. NCJ 168632

Violence by Intimates, 3/98. Reports findings about violence between people who have an intimate relationship -- spouses, exspouses, boyfriends, girlfriends, and former boyfriends and girlfriends from statistical data maintained by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. NCJ 167237

Sex Differences in Violent Victimization, 1994, 9/97. Contains detailed information about specific violent crime types and contextual characteristics of violence against both women and men and their relationship to those who victimize them. NCJ 164508

Violence-Related Injuries Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments, 8/97. Presents findings from a study of violence related-injuries treated in hospital emergency departments in 1994. The study was conducted using the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) program. NCJ 156921

Sex Offenses and Offenders 2/97. Reports on more than two dozen statistical datasets maintained by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and on data from the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program of the FBI to provide a comprehensive overview of current knowledge about the incidence and prevalence of violent victimization by sexual assault, the response of the criminal justice system to such crimes, and the characteristics of those who commit sexual assault or rape. NCJ 163392

Domestic and Sexual Violence Data Collection: A Report to Congress Under the Violence Against Women Act, 7/96. Reports how States and the Federal government collect data on the incidence of sexual and domestic violence offenses. NCJ 161405

Violence between Intimates, 11/94. Using data from a variety of sources, this report examines murders, rapes, robberies, and assaults committed by spouses, ex-spouses, boyfriends, or girlfriends. NCJ 149259

Crime and Neighborhoods , 7/94. Compares victimization levels and perceptions of neighborhood crime for the Nation's households using data from a variety of sources. NCJ 147005

Guns and Crime: Handgun Victimization, Firearm Self-Defense, and Firearm Theft, 5/94. Provides estimates of the extent of handgun crime in the United States through 1992, as well as estimates from the National Crime Victimization Survey of thefts of firearms and the extent of firearm use for self-defense. NCJ 147003

Violent Crime, 4/94. Summarizes 1973-92 trends in rape, robbery, and assault from the National Crime Victimization Survey; homicide data from Vital Statistics of the United States, National Center for Health Statistics; and 1992 murder data from the FBI Uniform Crime Reports. NCJ 147486

Carjacking, 3/94. Presents the first National Crime Victimization Survey estimates of the extent and characteristics of the recently identified crime of carjacking. NCJ 147002

The Costs of Crime to Victims, 2/94. Provides information on both the overall and the average cost of crime to victims. NCJ 145865

School Crime 1991, 9/91. Analyzes the experiences of U.S. students in grades 6-12 regarding crime victimization at school, the availability of illicit substances, gang presence, fear of crime, and school security measures. NCJ 131645

Related sites
From BJS

Data Online for criminal offenses and homicide trends by State and locality.
Firearms and Crime
Homicide Trends in the United States
Improving the Quality and Accuracy of Bias Crime Statistics Nationally: An Assessment of the First Ten Years of Bias Crime Data Collection
Other relevant sites
Reports from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention:
Child Abuse Reported to the Police
Juvenile Victims of Property Crimes
In The Crossfire: The Impact of Gun Violence on Public Housing Communities (Pdf file, 222 KB) from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development which includes data from the National Crime Victimization Survey.
Office for Victims of Crime
Violence Against Women Office
National Center for Education Statistics