Do unto others as you would have them do unto you
Although this report was published in 1918, it is just as apt today as it was them.
Education must consist of more than just the three R's for this great nation to exist for another two hundred years.
THE CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
THE CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education were issued in 1918 by the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary
Education. The focus of this commission was to form objectives for secondary education. It was decided that segmented subjects
and their subject matter were a way to achieve the decided goals but that they were not the one and only way. The commission
was also instrumental in starting a standard of forming goals before reforming schools. Changes were needed because of increased
enrollment in secondary schools. A new focus that would take into account individual differences, goals, attitudes, and abilities
was adopted. The concept of democracy was decided on as the guide of education in America. Work on the Cardinal Principles
was started in 1915 and finished in 1918. The seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education are as follows:
A secondary school should encourage good health habits, give health instruction, and provide physical activities. Good
health should be taken into account when schools and communities are planning activities for youth. The general public should
be educated on the importance of good health. Teachers should be examples for good health and schools should furnish good
equipment and safe buildings.
2. Command Of Fundamental Processes
Fundamental Processes are writing, reading, oral and written expression, and math. It was decided that these basics should
be applied to newer material instead of using the older ways of doing things.
3. Worthy Home Membership
This principle "calls for the development of those qualities that make the individual a worthy member of a family, both
contributing to and deriving benefit from that membership" (Raubinger, Rowe, Piper, West, 108). This principle should be taught
through literature, music, social studies, and art. Co-ed schools should show good relationships between males and females.
When trying to instill this principle in children the future as well as the present should be taken into account.
The objective of this principle is that the student gets to know him or herself and a variety of careers so that the student
can choose the most suitable career. The student should then develop an understanding of the relationship between the vocation
and the community in which one lives and works. Those who are successful in a vocation should be the ones to teach the students
in either the school or workplace.
5. Civic Education
The goal of civic education is to develop an awareness and concern for one's own community. A student should gain knowledge
of social organizations and a commitment to civic morality. Diversity and cooperation should be paramount. Democratic organization
of the school and classroom as well as group problem solving are the methods that this principle should be taught through.
6. Worthy Use Of Leisure
The idea behind this principle is that education should give the student the skills to enrich his/her body, mind, spirit
and personality in his/her leisure. The school should also provide appropriate recreation. This principle should be taught
in all subjects but primarily in music, art, literature, drama, social issues, and science.
7. Ethical Character
This principle involves instilling in the student the notion of personal responsibility and initiative. Appropriate teaching
methods and school organization are the primary examples that should be used.
Naming these seven objectives does not "imply that the process of education can be divided into separated fields" (Raubinger,
Rowe, Piper, West, 106). Therefore all of the seven principles are interrelated. In order for these principles to be successful
the student must have a willingness to follow these and an ethical character that will allow this learning to take place.
Raubinger, Rowe, Piper, West. The Development Of Secondary Education. New York: Macmillan, 1969.
Prepared by Melissa Scherer
Click here to view the list and read the summary report.
Following is a good article about the use of seven principles to improve
the undergraduate educational process. What's missing is an emphasis on building character and ethical values. Of course,
if these college students had been educated in high school according to the seven principles in the article above, they would
already be of good character and have high moral values.
SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD PRACTICE IN UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION
Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson write:
"Apathetic students, illiterate graduates, incompetent
teaching, impersonal campuses -- so rolls the drumfire of criticism of higher education. More than two years of reports have
spelled out the problems. States have been quick to respond by holding out carrots and beating with sticks."
1. Encourages Contact Between Students and Faculty
Frequent student-faculty contact in and out of classes is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement.
Faculty concern helps students get through rough times and keep on working. Knowing a few faculty members well enhances students'
intellectual commitment and encourages them to think about their own values and future plans.
2. Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students
Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort that a solo race. Good learning, like good work, is collaborative
and social, not competitive and isolated. Working with others often increases involvement in learning. Sharing one's own ideas
and responding to others' reactions sharpens thinking and deepens understanding.
3. Encourages Active Learning
Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing
pre-packaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it
to past experiences and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.
4. Gives Prompt Feedback
Knowing what you know and don't know focuses learning. Students need appropriate feedback on performance to benefit from
courses. When getting started, students need help in assessing existing knowledge and competence. In classes, students need
frequent opportunities to perform and receive suggestions for improvement. At various points during college, and at the end,
students need chances to reflect on what they have learned, what they still need to know, and how to assess themselves.
5. Emphasizes Time on Task
Time plus energy equals learning. There is no substitute for time on task. Learning to use one's time well is critical
for students and professionals alike. Students need help in learning effective time management. Allocating realistic amounts
of time means effective learning for students and effective teaching for faculty. How an institution defines time expectations
for students, faculty, administrators, and other professional staff can establish the basis of high performance for all.
6. Communicates High Expectations
Expect more and you will get more. High expectations are important for everyone -- for the poorly prepared, for those
unwilling to exert themselves, and for the bright and well motivated. Expecting students to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling
prophecy when teachers and institutions hold high expectations for themselves and make extra efforts.
7. Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning
There are many roads to learning. People bring different talents and styles of learning to college. Brilliant students
in the seminar room may be all thumbs in the lab or art studio. Students rich in hands-on experience may not do so well with
theory. Students need the opportunity to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be pushed
to learn in new ways that do not come so easily.
Click here to read the entire article.
There was quite a stir when this Federal legislation was enacted. It was heralded as requiring accountability for our educational
system. However, it seems to touch on only one of the seven goals outlined in 1918 and doesn't even cover all of the subjects
refered to in that goal. Are our kids really getting the right kind of education?
NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND
The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is a new federal law. The law provides an overall system for improving student achievement.
This law has three goals:
1--To make sure that all students in a school as well as students from low-income families, minority populations, Limited
English Proficient students and students with disabilities perform well in the areas of reading and mathematics.
2--To hold schools responsible if all children are not on grade level or above.
3--To make sure that there is a highly qualified teacher in each classroom.